Image: Map of world: late Cretaceous
Late Cretaceous – 75 million years ago
- Ronald Blakey
- © Ronald Blakey
- Climate: no polar ice caps, world-wide variation, average temperature dropping, sea levels falling, carbon dioxide levels about four times higher than today
- Main dinosaurs: ceratopsians, pachycephalosaurs, hadrosaurs, dromaeosaurs, tyrannosaurs in the northern hemisphere; titanosaurs, abelisaurs and ornithopods in the southern hemisphere; modern lineage of birds; primitive birds
- Main plants: flowering plants; other plants such as cycads, ferns and conifers
- Other animals: many new species; declining numbers of ammonites; giant short-tailed pterosaurs rule the air; mosasaurs and sharks are dominant predators in seas.